Chaos in the Middle East: Its Historical Roots and a Sykes-Picot 2.0 to the Rescue

In January 2018, Turkey started a military offensive in Afrin, Syria. The official aim of Operation Olive Branch is fighting (a non-existent-in-the-region) ISIL and the Kurdish-led Democratic Union Party (PYD) in Syria, its armed wing People’s Protection Units (YPG), and Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF). In February, a US-led coalition struck pro-regime forces while Israel did the same with Iranian targets in Syria. These military operations are the latest events happening in the seven-year Syrian conflict; a conflict that has left 480,000 dead, 6.3 million people internally displaced in need of urgent humanitarian assistance, and 5.1 million refugees (the largest refugee population in the world) including 2.8 million children. Far from being settled, the conflict is becoming more complex day by day. How did this war start? Who is involved? How will it end? How will it impact the whole region and beyond? These are some questions that come to mind when thinking about this conflict. To answer these questions, a look back in time is mandatory. This article aims to present the modalities of the Syrian conflict and, by ricochet, those of the whole Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the risks of the rise of some hotbeds in the area as well as a solution to this chaos. The Problem Context: Beyond the Syrian Conflict… The MENA region is experiencing an era of extreme turbulence. This is not new nor recent, which is why a diachronic analysis of the region’s history is critical to shedding new light on … Continue reading Chaos in the Middle East: Its Historical Roots and a Sykes-Picot 2.0 to the Rescue